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Sad History is replaying now in 2020
Five Eyes + India + Japan: again massive military surrounding "Gentle Man of the East"  文化

What is the Treaty of 1901 and how it relates to US scholarship?  

A misnomer, Peace Agreement / Protocol (Settlement of the Disturbances of 1900) Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Russia, Spain, United States and China (Eight-Nations Allied forces八国联军)boxerindemnity

This is the final protocol in the series passionately known as the Xinchou Treaty  辛丑条约 or "Unequal Treaties" where foreign powers had no obligations in return.  This is also ingrained in the minds of older Chinese as “China's Century of Humiliation"  百年国耻 (1839 – 1949). This humiliation includes the Rape of Nanjing 南京事件 by Japan in 13 December 1937. 

 

The 100 years saga briefly goes like this: 

  1. By the end of the 19th century, the Western powers and Japan had forced China’s ruling Qing dynasty to accept wide foreign control over the country’s economic affairs. In the Opium Wars (1st: 1839–42), popular rebellions, and the Sino-Japanese War, China had fought to resist the foreigners, but it lacked a modernized military and suffered millions of casualties.  The loss ended in the first of the Unequal Treaties.
  2. Another milestone in this unwanted trade on opium in China is the burning of the Old Summer Palace or Yuan Ming Yuan 圆明园 "Gardens of Perfect Brightness".  It was burnt on the night of 18 October 1860 (2nd Opium War period) ordered by British High Commissioner leaving only 12 buildings. The palace was ransacked again and completely destroyed in 1900 when the forces of the Eight-Nation Alliance invaded Beijing.summer1
               
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  3. With this unrelenting encroachment, Chinese nationalists launch the “Boxer Rebellion” in Peking. Calling themselves, 义和拳 YiHe Quan or “the Righteous and Harmonious Fists,” the nationalists occupied Peking, killed several Westerners, including ambassador and missionaries.qinarmy
  4. On 14 August 1900, the Eight-Nations Allied forces sent troops to China, finally captured Beijing, relieving the foreigners and Christians besieged there since June 20.
  5. In September 1901, the Peking Protocol was signed, formally ending the Boxer Rebellion.
  6. It was also agreed that China allow the foreign countries to base their troops in Beijing with Empress Dowager Cixi on their list of war criminals. 
  7. Due to mutual jealousies between the powers, foreign nations received extremely favourable commercial treaties with China, China was forced to pay $333 million dollars in gold with interest as penalty for its rebellion.  The sum was to be distributed among the 8 nations with United States getting 7.32%.
  8. The indemnity was for to i) pay the invasion war and interest, ii) compensate the loss of nationals, missionaries, businessmen and enterprises & iii) compensate the church losses including loss of Chinese Catholics.

 

The Boxer Indemnity Scholarship Program 庚子賠款獎學金 was a scholarship program funded by Boxer Rebellion indemnity money paid to the United States that provided for Chinese students to study in the U.S.  That is how my Gong Gong got the scholarship and was sent to US in 1910 in the 2nd batch to get a Chemical Engineering Degree from the University of Michigan.

Think!   What is the real purpose of getting Chinese students to study in US, any hidden agenda.  Anyway it was paid by China.

 

Great! Hooray!   China National Day 2017

Enjoy the Video & the images

 

 

 

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